Colorectal Surgery is a field of medicine dealing with disorders of the colon, rectum and anus.
Colorectal surgeons are experts in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. They have completed advanced surgical training in the treatment of these diseases as well as full general surgical training as well. Board-certified colon and rectal surgeons complete residencies in general surgery followed by colon and rectal surgery, and pass intensive examinations conducted by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. They are well-versed in the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the colon, rectum and anus and are also able to perform routine screening examinations and surgically treat conditions if indicated to do so.
Benign disorders of the anus and rectum include hemorrhoids, anal abscesses, fissures, abnormal connections between the rectum and other structures or skin surface (fistulas), severe constipation conditions, fecal incontinence, protrusion of the walls of the rectum through the anus (rectal prolapse), treatment of severe inflammation of colon or small bowel, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis.
Family Practice is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages. It is a division of primary care that provides continuing and comprehensive health care for the individual and family across all ages, genders, diseases, and parts of the body. It is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and promotion of health. The aim of family medicine is to provide personal, comprehensive, and continuing care for the individual in the context of the family and the community.
The specialist's title is Family Physician or Family Doctor. He or she is sometimes referred to as a General Practice Doctor or GP. This name emphasises the holistic nature of this speciality, as well as its roots in the family.
General Surgery is the surgical specialty that primarily focuses on the abdominal organs but may include many other types of surgical procedures performed on blood vessels, glands, surgical treatment, trauma surgery, skin procedures and cancer treatment.
General Surgeons have been educated and trained in the diagnosis and preoperative, operative, and postoperative management of patient care. The broad based nature of their education makes it possible for these physicians to perform many procedures in the performance of their jobs. They typically operate on common abdominal complaints including appendicitis, hernias, gallbladder surgeries, stomach and intestinal issues. This focus on the abdomen is not absolute, however, as general surgeons may specialize in a type of surgery, such as treating cancer or burns, that requires the surgeon to be able to perform procedures on multiple areas of the body.
Some may choose to go on to a specialty, but others enjoy the variety that makes up the day of a true general surgeon, and practice a wide assortment of procedures.
Gerontology is the is the study of the social, psychological, cognitive and biological aspects of aging. The science of gerontology has evolved as longevity has improved. Researchers in this field are diverse and are trained in areas such as physiology, social science, psychology, public health, and policy.
A more complete definition of gerontology includes the following:
- Scientific studies of processes associated with the physical, mental, and social changes in people as they age
- Multidisciplinary investigation of societal changes resulting from an aging population and ranging from the humanities (e.g., history, philosophy, literature) to economics
Gerontology should not be confused with Geriatrics. Gerontology is multidisciplinary and is concerned with physical, mental, and social aspects and implications of aging. Geriatrics is a medical specialty focused on care and treatment of older persons.
Although gerontology and geriatrics have differing emphases, they both have the goal of understanding aging so that people can maximize their functioning and achieve a high quality of life.
A Hospitalist is a dedicated in-patient physician who specializes in the practice of hospital medicine and works exclusively in a hospital.
A Hospitalist will manage patient care during the patient's hospitalization. Most hospitalists are physicians who have been trained in internal medicine (internists). Others have been trained in family practice, pediatrics, or a few other specialties. Hospitalists have undergone the same training as other internal medicine doctors including medical school, residency training, and board certification examination. The only difference is that hospitalists have chosen not to practice traditional internal medicine and works only with hospitalized patients.
An Intensivist, also known as a Critical Care Physician, is a board-certified medical doctor with advanced training and experience in treating critically ill patients. The Intensivist completes a fellowship in critical care medicine after finishing a residency in a field such as internal medicine, pulmonary medicine, anesthesia or surgery. Rather than focusing on specific body systems like Cardiologists (the heart and vascular system) or Pulmonologists (the lungs and respiratory system) Intensivists take a comprehensive approach to caring for ICU patients.
Internal Medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Subspecialties of internal medicine include allergy and immunology, cardiology (heart diseases), endocrinology (hormone disorders), hematology (blood disorders), infectious diseases, gastroenterology (diseases of the gut), nephrology (kidney diseases), oncology (cancer), pulmonology (lung disorders), and rheumatology (arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders).
Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called Internists. Internists are skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. Internists care for hospitalized and ambulatory patients and may play a major role in teaching and research. Because internal medicine patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Internists often have subspecialty interests in diseases affecting particular organs or organ systems.
Pain Management is the treatment of pain as a symptom. Depending on the cause of pain, techniques include medication, interventional procedures, psychological support, alternative therapies and specialized therapies. Medical professionals determine the appropriate pain management technique based on the source of the pain. For a body structure to be a source of pain, it needs to have a nerve supply that is susceptible to injury or stimulation. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy are often used to isolate pain-causing structures. Once the structure causing pain is identified, doctors choose treatment based on pain intensity, duration and aggravation.
Pediatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with the health and medical care of infants, children, and adolescents from birth up to the age of 18. The goal in the study of pediatrics is to reduce infant and child rate of deaths, control the spread of infectious disease, promote healthy lifestyles for a long disease-free life and help ease the problems of children and adolescents with chronic conditions. Pediatrics is concerned not only about immediate management of the sick child but also long term effects concerning quality of life, disability and survival. Pediatricians are involved with the prevention, early detection, and management of problems including: developmental delays and disorders, behavioral problems, functional disabilities, social stresses, mental disorders including depression and anxiety disorders.
A Pediatrician is a child's physician who provides not only medical care for children who are acutely or chronically ill but also preventive health services for healthy children. A pediatrician manages physical, mental, and emotional well-being of the children under their care at every stage of development, in both sickness and health.
Urology is the branch of medicine and physiology concerned with the function and disorders of the urinary system .
A Urologist is a physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive system. This can include diseases affecting the bladder, urethra, ureters, kidneys, and adrenal glands, along with the epididymis, penis, prostate, seminal vesicles and testes specifically in men. Urology is commonly regarded as a surgical specialty.
Wound Care is concerned with treating wounds that don't heal. A Wound Care Center offers individualized wound, ostomy, continence care, as well as treatments, techniques, and teaching from specialized, trained and skilled professionals to adult and pediatric populations.
Common types of Wound Care services include: burns, chronic ulcers and wounds, compression dressings, diabetic foot ulcers, ischemic ulcers, lower leg wounds, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), neuropathic ulcers, other chronic, non-healing wounds, ostomy care, peristomal skin irritation, pressure ulcers, radiation burns, skin tears, slow healing surgical incisions, surgical wounds, traditional wound cares, and traumatic wounds.